Antisperm Antibody Test
An antisperm antibody test looks for special proteins (antibodies) that fight against a man’s sperm in blood, vaginal fluids, or semen. The test uses a sample of sperm and adds a substance that binds only to affected sperm.
Semen can cause an immune system response in either the man’s or woman’s body. The antibodies can damage or kill sperm. If a high number of sperm antibodies come into contact with a man’s sperm, it may be hard for the sperm to fertilize an egg. The couple has a hard time becoming pregnant. This is called immunologic infertility.
A man can make sperm antibodies when his sperm come into contact with his immune system. This can happen when the testicles are injured or after surgeries (such as a biopsy orvasectomy) or after a prostate gland infection. The testicles normally keep the sperm away from the rest of the body and the immune system.
A woman can have an allergic reaction to her partner’s semen and make sperm antibodies. This kind of immune response is not fully understood but may affect fertility. This is a rare cause of infertility.
How To Prepare
Talk to your doctor about any concerns you have regarding the need for the test, its risks, how it will be done, or what the results will mean.
For women, a blood sample is taken from a vein in the arm.
For men, a semen sample is collected after the blood and vaginal fluid samples are taken. You should not release your sperm (ejaculate) for 2 days before the test. It is important to not go longer than 5 days before the test without ejaculating.
How It Is Done
Blood sample from the woman
The health professional taking a sample of your blood will:
- Wrap an elastic band around your upper arm to stop the flow of blood. This makes the veins below the band larger so it is easier to put a needle into the vein.
- Clean the needle site with alcohol.
- Put the needle into the vein. More than one needle stick may be needed.
- Attach a tube to the needle to fill it with blood.
- Remove the band from your arm when enough blood is collected.
- Put a gauze pad or cotton ball over the needle site as the needle is removed.
- Put pressure on the site and then put on a bandage.
A semen sample is collected by masturbation. You should urinate and then wash and rinse your hands and penis before collecting the semen in a sterile cup. You cannot use lubricants or condoms when collecting the sample. If you collect the semen sample at home, be sure to get it to the lab or clinic within 1 hour. Keep the sample at body temperature and out of direct sunlight. The sample cannot be collected by having sexual intercourse and then withdrawing when you ejaculate because vaginal fluid may be mixed with the sperm.